Buenos Aires, July 26, 1952.
Argentina is wrapped in silence as the country listens to the official communique from the Subsecretariat of Information: "It is our sad duty to inform the people of the Republic that Eva Perón, the Spiritual Leader of the Nation, died at 8:25 P.M.
From that initial silence sprang forth the sound of weeping and the sound of corks popping from champagne bottles. These sounds reflected the love and the hate that Evita inspired. The sounds of weeping reached the street and took the form of interminable lines visible to all the world until the day of Evita's funeral on August 11th.
Each Argentine knew who Eva Perón was; some, however, based their knowledge on their feelings while others depended on the rational interpretation of facts. Tangible reality began to take the form of myth and those of us who did not share Evita's chronological space in time but wished to know her found that for many years our way was blocked by silence. "We Do Not Speak of That" is not only the title of an Argentine film but also a signpost of our history.
The works that were published, the movies that were filmed, the voices that even today are raised in praise or condemnation confirm that Eva Perón has transcended both time and myth.
is a continual choice and we
continue to evolve until the hour of our death, then on July 26, 1952,
Evita, the child born thirty-three years ago in a small Argentine town,
had reached the end of her journey: she had become forever Evita.
Her story began on May 7, 1919, in Los Toldos, Province of Buenos Aires, when Juana Ibaguren gave birth. Four siblings preceded her: Elisa, Blanca, Juan and Erminda. Her father, Juan Duarte, had arrived in Los Toldos at the beginning of the century and had leased the farmland of La Unión with the goal of making it prosper. Everyone knew that the soil of the region was good for livestock and for agriculture. Juan Duarte belonged to an influential family in Chivilcoy and he and Adela d'Huart had several children there.
Prosperous and prestigious among the Conservatives of the area, patrón of an estancia, typical leader in the political struggles of the time, Juan Duarte was named Deputy Justice of the Peace in 1908.
But 1919 was not a good time for Conservatives. After long years of struggles, revolutionary in the beginning and abstentionist later, assured of electoral victory by the Saenz Peña Law after years of electoral fraud, the Radical Party headed to the polls and walked away with the power.
After the Radical Party President Dr. HipólitoYrigoyen dismantled the machinery which had prevented freedom of expression in the provinces, the Conservatives lost their last bastion in the Province of Buenos Aires. The Conservative Mayor and personal friend of Juan Duarte was replaced by the Radical Jose A. Vega Muñoz.
Duarte's star began to decline
and economic difficulties appeared on the horizon. When he was offered
the job of administering fields in the neighboring vicinity of Quiroga,
the family moved there but only stayed for a year. Erminda attended
grade in Public School Number One, but Evita
was still too small to don the obligatory Argentine schoolchild's white smock.
Since Quiroga did not offer them the opportunities they had hoped for, the family returned to Los Toldos. While the older children had enjoyed their father's times of economic bonanza, the younger ones knew only the times of scarcity. Their situation became even more serious when Juan Duarte died on January 8, 1926, after a car accident in Chivilcoy.
Duarte's funeral has been presented
in both literary and dramatic form many times over. The rejection that
Eva's family supposedly experienced is at the core of these
Blanca and Erminda, Evita's surviving sisters, categorically deny these
scandalous versions. Their half brothers
and sisters had already lost their mother. Eloisa Duarte (their half sister) has a son, Raúl Guillermo Muñoz, who has stated in a document witnessed by a notary public that the two families have always maintained a cordial relationship.
From that time on, the problem of survival "became a struggle which took on a new aspect each day," as Erminda Duarte remembers in her book, My Sister Evita (pg. 20). Doña Juana sat at her Singer sewing machine day after day, sewing and sewing, never complaining, ignoring her doctor's orders to rest her ulcerated legs. "I have no time. If I rest, how can I work, how can we survive?" (ibid, pg. 31). Elisa worked at the post office. Blanca studied to be a teacher in the pampas town of Bragado.
Eva began primary school when she was eight. She attended first and second grade in Los Toldos. Her childhood was spent in contact with nature, climbing trees, raising silkworms, playing hide-and-seek, hopscotch and tag, wearing homemade costumes which replaced store bought toys and made her into whatever she wanted to be.
Her sister Erminda was her inseparable playmate and her brother Juan fulfilled their wishes: he made kites and even a piano with keys that moved; he was the architect who constructed their playhouses and the ringmaster of their circuses. Elisa and Blanca nourished their childhood fantasies with bedtime stories.
In 1930 Juana decided to leave Los Toldos with her "tribe," as she liked to call her family, to seek a better fortune in the nearby town of Junin, where Elisa had been transferred. Blanca would soon begin teaching at the Sacred Heart School and Juan would find work in the town's pharmacy. Erminda began secondary school at the Colegio Nacional and Eva was registered in third grade at Public School #1, Catalina Larralt de Estrugamon.
In Junin at lunchtime three people sat down at the family table because they preferred Doña Juana's homemade cooking over anything else the small town had to offer; with time they would become part of the family.
Major Alfredo Arrieta, Commander of the Military District, would marry Elisa. Don José Alvarez Rodriguez, rector of the Colegio Nacional, came with his brother, Dr. Justo José Alvarez Rodriguez, who would one day marry Blanca.
In Junin, the childhood theatricals of Los Toldos were replaced by roles on a real stage. Eva began to stand out for her ability to recite poetry. In her autobiography, The Reason For My Life, she would say, "Even as a little girl I wanted to recite. It was as though I wished to say something to others, something important which I felt in my deepest heart." (pg.21) The Commission of the Artistic and Cultural Center of the Colegio Nacional often organized theatricals. Erminda was a member and even though Evita wasn't, she was still allowed to join the group and participate in a play called "Arriba Estudiantes." In Junin Evita's voice was broadcast for the first time over the loudspeakers installed in Prime Arini's "House of Music." Once a week the young people of the town would take the microphone in hand and display their artistic talent for singing, reciting, or declaiming.
Evita's "profound artistic vocation" (as she herself spoke of her calling) was nourished by Junin's cinema, her teenage radio auditions and her collection of film star pictures.
In Junin Evita had to make her first choice: "Shall I remain a small town girl and marry here as so many girls do? Shall I be a teacher like Blanca? Or an employee like Elisa?" By 1935 Evita had made up her mind: "I'II be an actress."
The characteristics of Evita's personality fit her vocation. She herself would say in La Razón de Mi Vida, her autobiography, "Like the birds, I've always preferred the freedom of the forest. I haven't even been able to tolerate that minimum loss of freedom which comes from living with your parents or in your hometown. Very early in life I left my home and my hometown and since then I've always lived free. I've wanted to be on my own and I have been on my own." (La Razón de Mi Vida, C.S. Ediciones, Buenos Aires, 1995, pgs. 193-194).
The circumstances which surround Evita's leavetaking from Junin have generated countless versions, the most common of which involves Augustín Magaldi, nicknamed the "Gardel of the Provinces" [Carlos Gardel was a famous Argentine tango singer]. Depending on which version you hear, he's either interceding with Doña Juana, at Evita's request, to obtain her permission for Evita to go to Buenos Aires, or simply providing Eva with letters of introduction which will open the doors of stardom for her. Erminda's memory of the conflict caused by Evita's unshakable decision to go to Buenos Aires and Doña Juana's no less unshakable desire to prevent her from going, contradicts the Magaldi versions. After pondering the words of José Alvarez Rodriguez, who advised her not to stand in the way of her daughter's vocation, Doña Juana gave in. "The rector insisted so much, that Mother, clenching her teeth, took you to Buenos Aires.
Juana returned alone, "furious
with the Rector of the Colegio Nacional, furious with everyone, "having
left Eva in the home of friends of the family, the Bustamantes"
Erminda: op. cit., pg. 71). The little girl of Los Toldos and Junin had
been left behind. Together with a few personal possessions placed in a
suitcase and lost over the course of the years, Eva took with her the
sound of the New Home Sewing Machine, the remembrance of toys wished
but never obtained, the impact of the discovery that there are poor and
rich in the world and the emotional
indignation felt when faced with injustice... these things she would always keep.
Eva Duarte Actress
Eva was just one more provincial to arrive in the great city during the '30's. More and more people with provincial accents were coming into greater Buenos Aires. Just as in the Creek theater, Buenos Aires presented two masks, one comic, the other tragic.
These were times of misery, unemployment, and hunger in a country which was one of the major producers of food in the world. These times were captured in the lyrics of the tango "Yira"... "when you split your shoes looking for some money so you can buy food," sang Gardel.
industrialization process which
began during the early part of the decade absorbed the workers
pushed by the crisis to flee the interior and come to Buenos Aires. The
upper and middle classes regarded these workers with horror. Buenos
inhabitants were not used to slums and
"yesterday's mate [ herbal tea] drying in the sun" so it could be used again. The owners of the palaces on Avenida Alvear, the oligarchs, members of the landowing aristocracy, were used to traveling to Europe. They were not used to the slap-in-the-face reality of tenements and slums on their own doorstep.
in this reality, Eva Duarte
dedicated ten years to her "passion for the arts." In 1945, having
the right to be considered a "star," she said in an interview for the
magazine Radiolandia, "I am not an adventuress, although some (those
never forgive a young woman for
succeeding) make me out to be one. I have spent more than five years dedicated to what is in me a firmly-rooted vocation: the arts. These have been five years of troubles, of noble struggles when I've known the uncertainty of adversity as well as the gratification of success"
(Radiolandia, April 7, 1945).
after arriving in Buenos Aires,
Eva joined the Argentine Comedy Company (Compañía
de Comedias), headed by Eva France, a front line actress on the
stage. On March 28, 1935, she debuted with a small part in the
production, "La Señora de los Perez." The critic Augusto
wrote in his review, "Eva Duarte was very good in her small part"
(Crítica, March 29, 1935). She would not always be fortunate enough to be mentioned but she stayed with the Company until January of 1936, always playing in bit parts in "Cada casa es un mundo" , "Mme. San Gene" and in "La Dama, el Caballero, y el Ladrón.
of 1936 she went on tour with
the Company belonging to Pepita Muñoz, José Franco and
Alvarez, and in December she joined the Company of Pablo Suero in a new
play, "Los Inocentes." In the early months of 1937 she was still with
company when they performed for a few days in
she returned to Buenos Aires she joined the company of Armando
considered to be one of the best directors of those times. On March 5,
1937, "La Nueva Colonia," written by L. Pirandello, opened in the
Politeama. In spite of the good reviews, the play was a failure at
the box office. Augusto Guibourg noted that, "Juanita Sujo, Eva Duarte, Anita Jordan and Jordana Fain acted gracefully together in scenes that were skillfully directed" (Crítica, May 5, 1937).
In August Eva appeared for the first time on the big screen. She had obtained a small contract to act in the film, "Segundos Afuera." At the same time Radio Belgrano offered her a contract to participate in the radio theater drama, "Oro Blanco.
following years she would act
simultaneously in the theater, in the movies and on the radio. As was
among actresses, she made incursions into the areas of publicity and
arts. From 1938 to 1940 Eva appeared on the Buenos Aires stage as part
of the companies of Pierina
Dealissi, Camila Quiroga, and Leopoldo Tomás Simari.
appearances in the movies were less
frequent. She was in "La Carga de los Valientes," "El más
infeliz del pueblo" and "Una novia en apuros." She had to wait until
to have a more important role in "La Cabalgata del Circo." She was the
star of the movie "La Pródiga" in 1945, but it was never
released to the public.
book, Días de Radio (Radio
Days), Cesar Ulanovsky affirms, "By the beginning of the 1940's very
people doubted the sentiments and the effects that radio was capable of
producing. Behind the polished walnut or mahogany cabinets were hidden
the national identity documents of the era:
multitudes of dreams, unleashed imagination, talented people trained in all the different kinds of entertainment ranging from drama to humor. Radio dictated the limits of possibility where fiction and reality mingled and singing voices raised or lowered the volume of people's lives as if illusion
or disillusion were a sort of resounding destiny"
(Ulanovsky, César: Días de Radio, ed. Espasa-Calpe, Buenos Aires, 1995, p. 121).
Duarte had climbed up that stage
early on and would continue to affirm her right to be there. In 1939
and Pascual Pelliciotta headed the Company of the Theater of the Air,
in Radio Mitre, then in Radio Prieto. On May 1, 1939, the soap opera
Jasmines del '80" was broadcast for the first time. Eva's radio
appeared on the Radio Argentina, El Mundo, and, finally, in 1943, on
Belgrano when she began a series which would continue until 1945, "The
Biographies of Illustrious Women," among them Elizabeth I of England,
Bernhard, Margarita Well de Pat,
Isadora Duncan, Mme. Chiang Kai Shek, Catherine the Great.
"I was lucky," she said in the Radiolandia interview, "to go from one microphone to the next until I came to the one which for me is the best radio has to offer. In Radio Belgrano I found people who believed in my possibilities. Here I have reached the height of my career, a very rewarding career which began modestly but grew as I dedicated myself to my work, as I strove to perfect myself and to assimilate the very valuable lessons I received.
Eva Duarte actress leaves the radio
stage Eva Perón will take her place. Her voice will continue to
reach each home, not as the incarnation of another woman's but as her
By then she will have made a commitment to a cause and to a man, to
Juan Domingo Perón.
The Day Which Split History: October 17, 1945
In 1943 the separation between the real country and the government dominated by the oligarchy was a flagrant one. The climate became more tense as the time for elections drew near. With the increased tension came the foreboding that the regimen would put its fraudulent seal on these elections just as it had on previous ones. On June 4, 1943, a military coup ousted President Ramón Castillo.
General Pedro P. Ramirez assumed
the Presidency, Colonel Juan Perón, unknown to the citizenry
but prestigious among his military colleagues, took over the National
of Labor. One month later the Department was transformed into the
of Labor and Social Welfare. Here Perón laid the political
which would affect the next decade of
A real national tragedy would now join two people who up to this moment had been ignorant of each other's existence.
January 15, 1944, an earthquake destroyed
90% of the Andean city of San Juan. Seven thousand people died and
were left injured. From the Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare,
organized a national relief effort and invited the most popular stars
the day to participate. Eva
Duarte was among them and helped take up collections for the needy.
On January 22, a great festival was held at Luna Park Stadium with all benefits destined for the victims of the earthquake. Eva Duarte and Colonel Perón began a relationship which would be socially confirmed at a gala held at the Colón Opera House on July 9 to celebrate Argentina's Independence Day.
Two days before, General Farrell (who assumed the Presidency on March 11 when Ramirez resigned) had designated Perón as Vice President. Perón retained his first position in charge of the Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare as well as a second position which he had recently assumed as Minister of War.
Eva, for her part, had three programs on Radio Belgrano: at 10:30 A.M. she starred in "Towards a Better Future" which exalted the goals of the 1943 Revolution; at 6:00 P.M. she was in charge of the cast of the drama, "Tempest," and at 10:30 P.M. she starred in "Queen of Kings.
On May 6, 1944, she was chosen President of the Agrupación Radial Argentina, a union entity which she had founded in 1943.
had become the key figure
in the new military government-and the most irritating as far as the
was concerned. Eva's presence and the place Perón accorded her
another target; this time his own colleagues would take aim at it. If
was atypical, the woman at his
side was even more so: she had decided to stand at the side of her man, not behind him. And Perón had accepted that which was unacceptable at the time.
October 13, 1945, one sector of the
government was successful in obtaining Perón's resignation from
all his positions. He was detained and sent to Martin Garcia, an island
off the coast of Buenos Aires. By this time the workers had realized
Perón's disappearance would mean the
disappearance of his labor policy and all the conquests they had made. At dawn on October 17 they began to abandon their workplaces and head towards Plaza de Mayo: they demanded the appearance of their Colonel. Perón's withdrawal had produced a vacuum of power which only he could fill.
That night Perón appeared on the balcony of the Casa Rosada and announced that elections would be held soon. The Plaza became a witness to a new political force in Argentina. For the cheering occupants of the overflowing Plaza de Mayo, Perón was now not only their leader but also their candidate.
as Eva's role in the crisis of
October 17, at this stage of our investigative research, we have only
testimony of witnesses. Some have her fighting elbow to elbow with the
workers (Alberto Mello), weaving together the threads of the movement,
bringing the people to the Plaza and
on the 17th placing herself at the vanguard of the movement (Perón), playing no part at all in the mobilization of the workers (Cipriano Reyes), or totally absent from all the events (Luis Monzalvo).
light of what we know about Eva's
personality at the time and from what she showed herself to be in later
years, it is difficult to validate the opinion of those who sustain
she did not participate at all in the events. At the same time, the
she occupied at Perón's side, with the knowledge of what
it was necessary to activate but not yet with the power and influence
activate them makes it difficult to sustain that she was the pivot of
foundational events of the Peronista
Movement. Perhaps Eva was situated between the two extremes: she could seek a habeas corpus, open contact with those she knew she could count on and who would be able to mobilize people, and participate in the events to the extent her resources would permit.
Eva never claimed for herself the role of leader on that 17th of October: Perón was won back by the people.
week of October, 1945, is a week
of many shadows and of many lights. It would be better if we did not
too close.., we should look at it again from farther away. However,
does not impede me from saying, with absolute frankness and in
of what I will someday write in more
detail, that the light came only from the people"
(Eva Perón, op.cit., p.39).
17th confirmed for Eva that
the events of the past few days did not portend an end (as some had
but a new beginning in Argentine history. This new beginning would have
as its foundation the relationship between a man, Perón, and the
bases of his support, the workers - the
descamisados (the shirtless ones). This relationship withstood all attempts to destroy it and lasted until Perón's death in 1974. It brought him to the Presidency of Argentina in 1946, in 1952, and in 1973, after eighteen years in exile.
Perón wrote two letters to Eva from his prison on the island of Martin Garcia. In one of them he said, "Today I have written to Farrell, asking him to accelerate my retirement: as soon as I get out of here we'll get married and we'll go someplace where we can live in peace.
Their civil marriage took place on October 22 and the religious ceremony on December 10, the time when they could go somewhere and live in peace never came.
The Labor Party chose Perón as its presidential candidate and Quijano as vice president. The opposition, united under the name of Democratic Union, chose Tamborini and Mosca as its candidates. Elections would be held in February of 1946.
The campaign was giddy, violent, aggressive-as are so many in Argentina-in word and in deed (it was marred by sabotage).
end of December the political
campaigns were ready to hit the interior of the country. "El
the Labor Party's campaign train, came and went along the tracks. For
first time in history, a candidate's wife accompanied him. At each
stop, she handed out buttons and
greeted the people personally.
We begin to see the profile of another woman: Eva has definitely entered into the political arena. On February 8 she took another step forward: a convocation of working women met at Luna Park to show their adhesion to the Labor Party ticket. The presidential candidate was ill and could not go. Eva went in his place. It was her debut as a speaker- but they wouldn't let her speak. Every time she tried, the women shouted, "We want Perón!"
months later she would be acclaimed.
She would have become another person. She would be EVITA.
Once again Evita redefined herself
When Perón assumed the Presidency, Evita, unlike other Presidents' wives, asked herself what role she would assume from then on. Once again she questioned herself about herself, she redefined herself. This time her role would be defined by her relationship to Perón as President and Leader.
is a foundational circumstance and is related directly to my decision
be a President's wife who does not follow the old model. I could have
those models. I want to make this clear because sometimes people have
to explain my "incomprehensible sacrifice" by arguing that the
salons of the oligarchy would have been closed to me in any case. Nothing is further from the truth nor from common sense. I could have been a President's wife in the same way that others were. It is a simple and agreeable role: appear on holidays, receive honors, "dress up" and follow protocol which is almost what I did before, and I believe more or less well, in the theater and the cinema. As far as the hostility of the oligarchs goes, I can't help but smile. And I ask: why would the oligarchs reject me? Because of my humble origins? Because of my career as an actress? But has that class of persons ever taken those reasons into account, here or in any part of the world, when it is the case of the wife of the President? The oligarchy was never hostile to anyone who could be useful. Power and money are never bad advantages for a genuine oligarch... . But I was not just the spouse of the President of the Republic, I was also the wife of the leader of the Argentine people.
"Peron had a double personality and I would need to have one also: I am Eva Peron, the wife of the President, whose work is simple and agreeable ... and I am also Evita, the wife of the leader of a people who have deposited in him all their faith, hope and love.
"I am Eva Perón, the wife of the President..."
The Museum of the Casa Rosada contains a portrait collection of all the Argentine Presidents. Each President stands alone, except for one. "Perón and Eva Perón" by Numa Ayrinhac.
"I am also Evita..."
"A few days of the year I represent Eva Perón ... "
"Most of the time, however, I am Evita ... "
We do not need to speak of Eva Perón. What she does appears profusely in newspapers and magazines everywhere.
other hand, I would like very
much to talk about Evita... ."
(Perón, Eva: op cit. pgs. 69-71).
enough, when the historical
figure of Evita is discussed, people seem to be most interested in
into other instances of her life: her childhood, her family, the life
her parents, the circumstances surrounding her decision to leave home,
her personal life in Buenos Aires,
her success as an actress, the beginning years of her relationship with Perón, the reasons for her actions. However, if she had not made the decision to "be Evita," we Argentines would not even be aware of her name, as we are unaware of the names of so many other first ladies.
Therefore, it is very interesting to talk about Evita, interesting to talk about her work with the disadvantaged, the working class, with women, all woven together into the fabric of her unceasing activity.
After Perón became President, Evita went to work on the fourth floor of the Central Post and Telecommunications office where she began to attend to delegations of workers who asked her to intervene in solving labor disputes or helping them obtain better wages. This relationship with the unions continued to intensify until 1952. It provided her with a solid political power base and created a foundation for her social work. She also began to receive the needy and to take care of their emergencies. She supported the government's policies, and she paid special attention to a sector which had not been taken into consideration before. On July 25th she spoke to the women of Argentina, and announced new measures designed to curb speculation. Beginning in October, her visits to factories increased and her trips to poor neighborhoods put her in contact with the people and their needs.
She found much to do. "And we began," she said in The Reason for My Life. "Little by little. I couldn't tell you on what exact day. I can tell you that at first I took care of everything myself. Then I had to ask for help. Finally I had to organize the work which in just a few weeks had become extraordinary." (Perón, Eva: op. cit. pg. 134).
September 24th Evita began working
from Perón's office in the Secretariat of Labor and Welfare. "I
went to the Secretaría de Trabajo and Previsión because
I could meet my people easily and without problems; because the
of Labor and Social Welfare is a worker and he and Evita
understand each other without any bureaucratic runarounds; and because the Secretaría offered me the tools I needed to begin my work... The functionaries of the Ministry collaborate with me in finding a solution to the problems brought by the unions, gathering background information, examining the solution on its own merits as well as studying the possible social and economic repercussions." (ibid, pgs. 83-84)
Secretaría was a symbolic
place. On July 30, in one of the meat packing plants at Parque de los
Evita said, "My mission is to transmit to the Colonel the concerns of
Argentine people." Evita saw herself as "the bridge" which brought
nearer to his people. She would become more than that; as the years
by, her activity became more intense and her working
She began her mornings by receiving the people with the most urgent needs at the Residence, then going to the Secretaría to meet with the unions and the poor. If she had to interrupt her interviews because of an official reception, homage, visit or any other activity involving protocol, the people left waiting at the Secretaría would stay until she returned. And she always would return and would not leave until everyone had been taken care of. Her days were divided into two parts-- mornings and afternoons one could say, with a light lunch at 2:00, 3:00 or even 6:00 P.M.
On Wednesdays the unions visited Perón, and Evita would usher the members in to see him. However, she rarely participated in these meetings. She continued to work at her own affairs in a nearby office.
Evita had the habit of dropping by unexpectedly to visit the Foundation's works under construction and on Thursdays she would visit its establishments around greater Buenos Aires.
In 1947 she was leaving the Secretaría around 10:00 P.M. and as the years went by her working day grew longer. The daily paper Democracia described one day, Friday, May 19, 1950:
starts her morning very early in
her office at Trabajo y Previsión and the first part of her day
lasts until 4:00 P.M. At 5:00 P.M. she's back and continues to work
dawn with only a few short breaks. One break is around 8:30 when she
General Perón attend the signing of a contract
which benefits the alimentation (food) workers. Another is around 11:00 P.M. when she attends the homage the railroad workers pay to one of their leaders who has been named a board member of the National Railways. From there she goes to a banquet at Retiro Park where she is fervently cheered by the workers of the bottled water industry. Once back at Trabajo y Previsión, she presides over an act organized by the workers of the cooking oil industry."
Even during her last illness, when she was advised to decrease her workload, she would inevitably respond, "I don't have time; I have too much to do."
The same rhythm and the same demands were placed on her collaborators. Implacably.
the early months of 1947, Evita
was busy creating her first weapons in defense of the poor: she
set in motion a children's tourism plan and the first contingent of
children left for the hills of Córdoba on January 6, 1947; she
and gave out subsidies to assist in the
construction of polyclinics designed for workers in the textile and glass industries; she distributed subsidies granted by the state through her mediation to more than 500 destitute families; she distributed clothes, food and household goods to needy families. On January 20, 1947, she received a delegation from Villa Soldati (a slum) which informed her of their unhealthy living conditions. On the same day she visited their neighborhood, situated close to the Flores marshlands. She personally took charge of implementing a plan to provide residents with health care and social services as well as suitable housing. On January 25, some families began to move into
newly-constructed modern chalets in Avellaneda while the rest of the families waited their turn in emergency housing. On February 12th these families also moved into housing provided for them by the municipal government on the 400 block of Belgrano Avenue.
(Democracia, January 18, 1947).
From the beginning, Evita had aimed for "direct social help": a job, medicine, housing. She would continue throughout her few remaining years of life to create immediate solutions.
Evita began to travel
to the interior. On October 26, 1946, she left for Córdoba
two policlínicos were inaugurated. These hospitals for railway
had been constructed under the auspices of the Ministry of Labor. On
30 she traveled to Tucumán, a province in the
north of Argentina. Her reception was so enthusiastic that it exceeded the ability of the authorities to control the crowds and some people were injured.
August 21, the Senate approved the
project which would give women the vote. Evita went to the Chamber of
to meet with the leaders of the Peronista bloc. Their objective:
right to vote. She would return to the Chamber in the following days to
talk to the legislators of the
Peronista Party. The campaign had begun.
Evita in Spain
In June of 1947, officially invited by the government of Spain, Evita began a tour which would take her to Spain, Italy, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Monaco, Brazil and Uruguay.
Acclaimed in Spain, she received the country's highest decoration: the Great Cross of Isabel the Catholic.
In Italy she was received by Pope Pius XII. The gold rosary he gave her would be placed in her hands at the hour of her death. In Italy she did not always receive a warm welcome: the Communist Party demonstrated its repudiation of her visit by shouting, "Down with Fascism!" There were other protests along the way as the tour continued, but the Communists' were the strongest.
In France she met the future Pope John XXIII and gave a large donation to the victims injured in the violent explosion which destroyed the Port of Brest. She also took time from her schedule to relax.
Wherever she went, the official itinerary of visits and receptions was interspersed with trips to workers' neighborhoods and to their institutions. At the same time that she left donations she sought to learn the lesson: what could Europe teach her about social action?
Three years after her trip was over she wrote, "With a few exceptions, on those apprenticeship visits, I learned everything that institutions of social welfare should not be in our country. The peoples and governments I visited will forgive me my frankness which is direct and yet so honorable. On the other hand, they - peoples and governments - are not to blame. The century which preceded Perón in Argentina is the same century which preceded them." (Perón, Eva. op.cit.179).
After she returned from Europe, Evita plunged back into her activities. Before she left she had begun to fight for women's suffrage. The battle for women's right to vote started many years ago and was fought within the framework of the worldwide battle for women's emancipation. Argentina was not a pioneer. New Zealand had given women the right to vote in 1893 and many nations had already followed in her footsteps before Argentina's law 13010, passed in 1947, gave Argentine women the right to equal suffrage.
leaving Madrid, on June 15, 1947,
Evita addressed the women of Spain: "This century will not go down in
as the "Century of World Wars" nor even as the "Century of Atomic
but rather as the "Century of Victorious Feminism." The prediction has
not come true; much remains to be done but obtaining for women the
to vote remains a significant
In Argentina the struggle for women's rights began with the turn of the century. The names Cecilia Grierson, Alicia Moreau de Justo, Elvira Dellepiane, Julieta Lantiri, Carmela Horne and Victoria Ocampo will be forever linked to this cause.
The feminist organizations of the time were mostly made up of women from the middle and higher classes, university graduates who had already begun in their own homes the struggle to not to be limited by thetraditional roles assigned them by society: to become wives and mothers.
The suffragettes presented bills in Congress. Some were wide, some more restrictive and some had the support of political figures like Alfredo Palacios: all were systematically buried. The last one, dated 1938, was signed by Victoria Ocampo and Susana Larguía.
The methodology used by the feminists was limited to the presentation of the bill, the pretense of a vote, the distribution of consciousness-raising brochures. Compared to the English suffragettes, for example, Argentine feminists' activity was extremely moderate.
What was lacking was a projection of their organizations beyond their own limits, a broad appeal addressed to all Argentine women whose profile was very different from that of the women who were petitioning in their name.
From the Secretaría, the Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare, Colonel Perón took up the political cause of Argentine women and created a Women's Work and Assistance Division. The right of women to vote was again brought to light. On July 26,1945, in a session of Congress, Perón specifically underlined his support for the initiative. The Commission Pro Women's Suffrage was formed and the government was petitioned to show its support for the Acts of Chapultepec (in which those countries which had signed the Acts but had not yet given women the vote agreed to do so).
subject of women's right to vote
had been taken up by the government itself. A sea change was underway.
With the exception of the Argentine Suffragette Association, presided
by Carmela Horne, the women's suffrage organizations opposed the
support of their projects.
On September 3, 1945, the National Assembly of Women, presided over by Victoria Ocampo, decided to reject the vote given to them by a de facto government and to demand that the Supreme Court assume the job of governing the country. The theme of the Assembly was "Women's Vote Only If Sanctioned by a Congress Chosen in an Honest Election."
Women's suffrage was once again put on the back burner during the momentous events of October, 1945.
The electoral campaign of 1946 made it clear that, whether they supported the Labor Party or the Democratic Union Party and even without any political rights, women had become part of Argentine politics. All they needed was to become a legitimate part.
President, Perón returned
to the topic of women's suffrage in his First Message to Congress, on
26, 1946, and in the Five Year Plan. Within this framework, Evita began
her campaign. She worked from different vantage points: with
with the delegations who visited her, with the
women congregated in the civic centers, by means of radio and the press. For example, on September 17, 1946, she and women from different Peronista feminist organizations drew up a common action plan. On January 17, 1947, she spoke to a delegation of women educators from Rosario: "I'm fighting for women's right to vote and I won't cease in my struggle until that right
becomes a reality."
Beginning on January 27, every Wednesday at 9:00 P.M. she broadcast a message from the Residence to all women, urging them to join her the struggle for their rights. When she returned from Europe-where she had alluded to the struggle on several occasions-she found that the bill was still on the back burner.
published a "Letter from
Eva Perón to Argentine Women" in which she exhorted them to
twice as hard to quickly obtain the passage of the women's suffrage law.
addressed her message to a wide
spectrum of women."
were two turning points in the
history of this process: the entrance of women into politics and the
of official support. A third can be added: Evita addressed her message
to a wide spectrum of women who made the cause their own and began to
an active role: they organized meetings and published pamphlets.
women took to the streets to put up posters
demanding the passage of the law. Feminist centers and institutions declared their support. On September 3, when the law should have been debated in the Chamber of Deputies, a great concentration of women was convoked. The debate was postponed. A concentration assembled again on the ninth. Evita, who could not be present on the third, was inside the Chamber on the ninth. Outside, a multitude acclaimed her. Another turning point: women began to see Eva Perón as their spokeswoman.
On September 23, amidst a gigantic civic convocation in Plaza de Mayo, the law was passed.
The pioneers among the women feminists rose up against the passage of the law, seeing it as a political maneuver and not as a defense of the cause of all women. Their slogan became "Now we don't want to vote."
But in 1951 they all voted, the Peronista women and the "antis."
sanction of Law 13010 set in motion
a series of events which would make it more effective. On May 23 the
registration process began as outlined in article four of Law 13010. In
1951, with Presidential elections on the horizon, Evita, as President
the Peronista Women's Party, sent a
message to the Chamber of Deputies, asking for amnesty "for that new sector of voters who have not yet registered."
The road which led to women's suffrage was arduous. The road towards civic capacitation and the preparation of women so they could take part in the political struggle would be even more arduous.
On September 14, 1947, the Peronista Party reorganized so as to permit the formation of another Peronista Party, exclusively for women (Partido Peronista Feminino-PPF).
The PPF would become a reality on July 26, 1949. The first National Assembly of the Peronista Feminist Movement met in the Cervantes Theater. There the Peronista Women's Party was born. Its underlying principle would be its adhesion to the doctrine and person of Perón. Evita was elected President with full organizational powers. The internal structure of the PPF was monolithic: the President of the party made the decisions and determined the direction of the work to be undertaken.
organization of the Partido Peronista
Feminino has been for me," Evita wrote in The Reason for My Life, "one
of the most difficult enterprises which I have undertaken. With no
in the country-something which I believe has been to my good
without any other resource but a heart placed at the service of a great
cause, I called together one day a small group of women. There were
about thirty. All were very young. I had known them as infatigable
in my work of social help, as fervent Peronistas, fanatics in the cause
of Perón. I had to ask great
sacrifices of them: to leave their homes and their jobs, to set aside one lifestyle and take up a more difficult and intense one. I needed women like them: untiring, fervent, fanatical. It was necessary to conduct a census of the women of the whole country to find those who believed in our cause. This
undertaking would require intrepid women who were willing to work day and night."
(Perón, Eva: op.cit., pg. 228)
They were the census delegates who also had the job of opening the "unidades básicas" (neighborhood meeting centers). In January of 1950 the first unidad básica was inaugurated in Buenos Aires, in the President Perón Neighborhood in Saavedra.
unidades básicas of the Peronista
Women's Party, besides being centers of political activity (they were
headquarters during the 1951 Presidential elections), were centers of
work. "The descamisados," she would say in her autobiography, "do not
political organization over which I preside, and my Foundation. The unidades básicas are something which belongs to Evita. And they go to them looking for what they hope Evita can give them. They themselves, my descamisados, have created a new function for the unidades básicas: inform the Foundation about the needs of the humble people of the entire country. The Foundation attends to these requests by sending help directly to those in need. I have been severely criticized for this.My eternal super critics consider that in this way I use my Foundation for political purposes. And maybe they are right! The end result of my work does have political repercussions; people see in my work the hand of Perón which reaches to the most remote corner of my country... and his enemies cannot be happy with that consequence of mywork."
(Perón, Eva:op. cit., 230-231).
The political action taken in favor of women harvested its fruits in the elections held on November 11, 1951. For the first time ever 3,816,654 women voted, 63.9% for the Peronista Party,and 30.8% for the Radical Civic Union Party.The Peronista Party was the only one to include women as candidates for election. In 1952, 23 women deputies and 6 senators took their seats in Congress.
If being a candidate on the ballot is a right which has been acquired, being elected involves a continuing struggle. Law 24012, passed in 1991, which establishes a 30% quota for women in representative political positions, and provides clear evidence of the discrimination which still pervades our society.
"Everything, absolutely everything in our contemporary world," wrote Eva Perón in the middle of the 20th century, "has been tailored to the measure of men."
"We are absent from governments."
"We are absent from Parliaments."
"From international organizations."
"We are neither in the Vatican nor the Kremlin."
"We are not part of the upper echelons of the imperialist countries."
"We are not in the atomic energy commissions."
"Nor in the great multinational corporations."
"Nor in freemasonry nor in any secret societies."
not in any of the great power
centers of the world."
Since then the world has undergone profound and vertiginous changes but it is still made to the same measure.
Evita, whose concept of feminism saw women as protagonists while continuing to be feminine, thought that the feminist movement should, for love, be united to the cause and doctrine of a man worthy of trust. She understood that among the many differences between a man and a woman, one difference involved the concept of "action": "A man of action is one who triumphs over the rest. A woman of action is one who triumphs for the rest."
The "action for the rest" had a name: Eva Perón Foundation.To this Foundation, Evita dedicated her best efforts.
Mothers and children found a refuge in the Hogares de Tránsito, temporary homes where they stayed until work and a permanent home could be found for them.
The social work which Evita began in 1946 began to acquire far-reaching influence and importance. The Social Help Crusade worked specifically to create neighborhoods of affordable housing, Temporary Homes (Hogares de Tránsito), school food programs, and to provide jobs to unemployed workers, instruments for hospitals, mediation for the provision of water and sanitary facilities for low income neighborhoods, donation of household items to needy families, and distribution of toys to poor children, especially during Christmas and Epiphany.
The funds and the articles were donated, especially by the workers' unions.
Also, the Social Work Crusade received funds from the Ministry of Social Welfare which were destined for the purchase of clothes, shoes, food, and medicine.
Evita's special position in the power structure (power from the outside) permitted access to the place where the decisions were made involving projects or increasing workers' rights. Her position permitted her to take action outside the bureaucratic structure.
By the end of 1947 it was clear that her social action required an organic structure.
María Eva Duarte de Perón
Foundation came into being on June 19, 1948, and obtained non-profit
on July 8. From September 25, 1950, until it was dismantled by the
coup in 1955, it was known as the Eva Perón Foundation.
Evita presided over international congresses.
In her speech of December 5, 1949, given to the First American Congress of Medicine in the Workplace, Evita was very clear about why the Foundation was created: to bridge the gaps in the national safety net (because in any country which is undergoing a national reorganization there are always gaps to be covered and the government must be ready with a quick, rapid and efficient response). She conveyed the idea of transforming the traditional concept of beneficence and redefining it within the Peronista program of social justice.
From beneficence ...to social justice
Children from the orphanages run by the Society of Beneficence
Children at the Children's City, Evita's beloved Ciudad Infantil
The greatest gaps in the safety net were found in the assistance provided to the elderly, children and women.
On August 28, 1948, in the Ministry of Labor, Evita read the Declaration of the Rights of Senior Citizens. She then placed it in the hands of the President, asking that it be incorporated into the legislation and the institutional fabric of the nation. It was included in the National Constitution of 1949.
Foundation was not content with
words. It constructed Homes for Senior Citizens; the first residence
inaugurated on October 17, 1948, in Burzaco. Others were constructed in
the interior of the country. At the same time, Evita obtained the
of a law which granted pensions to people over 60 who were without
Evita in the Children's City.
Evita was especially worried about the education, entertainment and health of the children and youth of the country. The Foundation set up a plan for the construction of one thousand schools throughout Argentina, as well as agricultural schools, workshops, nursery schools and daycare centers. The Amanda Allen Children's City and the Students' City formed part of the educational action plan. The Children's City was created to shelter children from two to seven years of age who were orphans or whose parents' were unable to care for them. The Students' City was a residence for students from the interior who came to Buenos Aires to study and had no place to stay.
The Children's Tourism Plan began in 1950 and enabled children to vacation in the mountains,at the seashore and in other tourist spots throughout the country. The vacation colonies were the jewels of this plan.
The Children's Competitions began in 1948 with soccer and were expanded to include many other sports; they enabled the Foundation to provide medical checkups to over 300,000 children.
The Children's Hospital and Epidemiology Center, and the Children's Recuperation Clinic in Terma de Reyes were among the Foundation's contributions to improving children's health care. The National Pediatric Hospital was almost finished at the time of the military coup in 1955. It was never completed.
Evita's work to help children was inspired in her belief that "the country which forgets its children renounces its future."
The problem of finding work and temporary shelter for women was alleviated by constructing and maintaining three Temporary Homes in Buenos Aires. Other homes were built in the interior.
The General San Martin Home for Women Employees sought to resolve the problem of single women who needed permanent lodging.This Home had a dining room where Evita would often go for supper after her day's work.Here Juan Castiñeira de Dios organized the Peña Eva Perón. The Peña, or Poetry Reading, where poets often dedicated their works to Evita, provided her with much joy and needed relaxation.
Evita frequently dined at the Hogar de la Empleada (a home for single working women). The Peña Eva Perón was held in the dining room.
In her desire to raise the general standard of living, Eva Perón provided the working girl with the maximum of comfort, combined with gracious surroundings.
To meet health care needs, the Foundation constructed four polyclinics in Buenos Aires, in Ezeiza, Avellaneda, Lanus and San Martín, and others in the interior of the country. The Foundation also donated modern medical equipment to other hospitals.
The Eva Perón Hospital Train, equipped with state-of-the-art medical technology, crisscrossed the country providing checkups and services to the people in the most remote areas.
September, 1951, the School of Nurses
was inaugurated. The School was one of Evita's most cherished
graduates worked all over Argentina and abroad.
The Foundation's Nursing School had hospital-ambulances equipped with ten beds and an operating room.
Chalets with red tile roofs were typical elements of Peronista architecture.
To meet housing needs, the Foundation constructed workers' homes, such as the President Peron Neighborhood and Evita City which provided housing for over 25,000 families.
All the Foundation's works were followed and supervised by Evita, from the drawing board to their daily operation. She was often accompanied in her tours by visitors from abroad.
The Foundation also helped other countries in times of need or catastrophe, as Ecuador, Spain, Italy, Israel, France, Japan, Peru, and Bolivia (among others) can testify.
Columbia receives help from the Eva Perón Foundation after an earthquake.
origin of the funds which the Foundation
used for its works has been an object of controversy in Argentina. The
Foundation's Balance Sheet for 1953 specifies the origin of its funds:
cash donations, mostly from unions but also from individuals and
collective bargaining agreements;
taxes; rents; Legislative grants, etc. We must mention that stories circulated about forced donations where resistance was met with persecution; the Mu-Mu Candy Factory is cited as an example.
Marysa Navarro, in her biography
Evita, notes: "But if the "spontaneous contributions" had existed on a
large scale and been accepted systematically, those who were forced
have denounced them after September of 1955. If they did not wish to
them publicly they could
have done so before the commission in charge of investigating the administration of the Foundation and presumably the commission would have been pleased to receive these accusations. We must believe that there were not a large number of denunciations because if there had been, the
commission would have listed them and it does not do so"
(Navarro, Marysa: Evita, ed. Planeta, Buenos Aires, 1994, pg. 263).
After Evita's death the Foundation continued to operate but without its former vigor and achievements. Perón tried to take her place but two circumstances were different: Perón was not Evita and the economy was not the same as it had been when Evita was alive.
Evita's popularity and power grew
so did criticism from the opposition and (in some cases) from certain
of Peronismo. They attacked from different angles: activities
for a First Lady, undistilled resentment, dangerous influence on
uncontrolled ambition for power. Under the surface, but not too far
was the criticism not of what was being done, or how it was being done,
or why it was being done but that it was being done by a woman. As J.M.
Taylor says, "Evita confronts us with the enigma of power attributed to
a woman in a traditionally and formally patriarchal society, a society
that devalues women as against men."
(Taylor, J.M.: Eva Perón, The Myths of a Woman, University of Chicago Press, Chicago,
1981, pg. 10).
Evita reached the height of her power in 1950-1951. These were also the years when she was confronted with her illness and her last choice: should she be Vice President of the nation?
On August 2, 1951, the CGT asked Perón to run again for President (this was possible after the reform of the Constitution in 1949) and expressed the desire that Evita would be his running mate. Support for the ticket Perón - Perón grew in the following days.
August 22, in the historic Cabildo
Abierto de Justicialismo, a mass concentration on Nueve de Julio
over a million people voiced their desire and support for Evita's
Evita spoke to the multitude but eluded accepting the office of vice president. The people insisted and a dialogue began whose fervor and intensity is difficult to put into words. Evita asked for time to think things over before reaching a decision.
"At least four days."
"I do not renounce my work, I only renounce the honors ... ."
don't want any worker in my country
to be without a response when the
resentful, the mediocre people who never understood me nor never will, who
believe that everything I do is for personal gain ... ."
"One day ... ."
"Two hours ... ."
Evita left the microphone. Torches were lit and illuminated a multitude willing to spend the night there waiting for a reply. Evita took the microphone.
"Friends! As General Perón said, "I will do as the people ask."
The dialogue was over. The people believed she had accepted.
August 31, in a nationwide broadcast,
Evita announced her "irrevocable decision to renounce the honor which
workers and the people" had wished to bestow on her.
June, 1952. Perón's second inauguration and Evita's last public appearance.
The background behind the story of Evita's renunciation has yet to be written. There are many threads to be woven together ... the Armed Forces, her illness, the CGT, the people, Evita herself.
The Perón-Quijano ticket won the November elections. Evita voted from her sickbed in the Polyclinic in Avellaneda for the first and last time.
She accompanied Perón during his second inauguration.
It was her last public appearance.
Her work had become a part of the thousands of men, women, and children who mourned her. In only thirty-three years Evita had found the reason for her life and had left to others, as she herself once said when she inaugurated a polyclinic, the easiest task: that of changing the names of the works she had built.
will return and I will be millions!
Reprinted with acknowlegements to Evita Peron Foundation